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Chrome-Plated Fraud

How PG&E's Scientists-For-Hire Reversed Findings of Cancer Study

December 23, 2005

Chrome-Plated Fraud: References

[1] Zhang, JianDong and XiLin Li. 1987. [Chromium pollution of soil and water in Jinzhou]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi [J. Chinese Prevent. Med.] 21(5):262-4.

[2] Zhang, JinDong and ShuKun Li. 1997. Cancer mortality in a Chinese population exposed to hexavalent chromium in water. JOEM 39(4):315-319.

[3] ChemRisk's website: http://www.chemrisk.com/ Accessed on September 30, 2005.

[4] US Department of Energy and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2005. Agenda for HHS Public Health Activities (For Fiscal Years 2005—2010) at U.S. Department of Energy Sites. January, 2005. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/pdfs/hhsdoe_2005-2010.pdf

[5] ChemRisk's website: http://www.chemrisk.com/team/paustenbach.htm Accessed on September 30, 2005.

[6] Center for Science in the Public Interest. 2005. Integrity in Science Database. Available at: http://www.cspinet.org/integrity/index.html Accessed on September 30, 2005.

[7] Lane, A. 2004. When corporations need an expert, he gladly answers the call. Newark Star-Ledger. March 7, 2004.

[8] Weiss, R. 2002. Paustenbach CDC appointment: HHS Seeks Science Advice to Match Bush Views. Washington Post. Tuesday, September 17, 2002. Page A01.

[9] Deposition of Brent Kerger. Wednesday, December 4, 2002. Volume 1, page 165, line 3.

[10] US Environmental Protection Agency. 2001. Inorganic Chromium - Report of the Hazard Identification Assessment Review Committee. Available at: http://www.epa.gov/oscpmont/sap/2001/october/arsenicgraphdata.pdf

[11] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2000. Toxicological Profile for Chromium. US Department of Health and Human Services. Available at: http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp7.html

[12] Chromate Toxicity Review Committee. 2001. Scientific review of toxicological and human health issues related to the development of a Public Health Goal for chromium (VI). August 31, 2001. Available at:
http://www.dhs.ca.gov/ps/ddwem/chemicals/
Chromium6/reviewpanelreport.pdf

[13] Hearing of the California Senate Health and Human Services Committee. 2003. Possible Interference in the Scientific Review of Chromium VI Toxicity. February 23, 2003. Los Angeles, CA. Transcript available at: http://www.sen.ca.gov/health/CHROMIUM_VI_TRANSCRIPT_28FEB03.DOC

[14] California Department of Health Services. 2005. Chromium-6 in Drinking Water: Timeline. Available at: http://www.dhs.ca.gov/ps/ddwem/chemicals/chromium6/Cr+6timeline.htm Accessed on September 30, 2005.

[15] US Environmental Protection Agency. 2000. Hazard summary for chromium compounds. Available at: http://www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/hlthef/chromium.html

[16] US Environmental Protection Agency, Toxicological Review of Hexavalent Chromium (CAS No. 18540-29-9), August 1998. Available at: http://www.epa.gov/iris/toxreviews/0144-tr.pdf

[17] International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). 1990. Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Chromium and Chromium Compounds. Volume 49, 1990. Available at: http://www-cie.iarc.fr/htdocs/monographs/vol49/chromium.html

[18] National Toxicology Program. 2005. 11th Report on Carcinogens. Chromium Hexavalent Compounds. Available at: http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/roc/eleventh/profiles/s045chro.pdf

[19] US Department of Labor, Occupational Safety & Health Administration. 2004. Occupational Exposure to Hexavalent Chromium; Proposed Rule. Federal Register: October 4, 2004 (Volume 69, Number 191). Available at: http://www.osha.gov/FedReg_osha_pdf/FED20041004-PRE.html

[20] Costa, M. 1997. Toxicity and carcinogenicity of Cr(VI) in animal models and humans. Crit Rev Toxicol 27(5):431-42.

[21] California Department of Health Services. 2004. Chromium-6 in Drinking Water: Background Information. Available at: http://www.dhs.ca.gov/ps/ddwem/chemicals/chromium6/Cr+6backgroundinfo.htm

[22] World Health Organization. 1996. Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality, 2nd Ed., Vol. 2. Health Criteria and Other Supporting Information, Inorganic Constituents and physical parameters, World Health Organization, Geneva. Available at: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/gdwq2v1/en/index1.html

[23] Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. 2003. Draft Public Health Goal for Hexavalent Chromium in Drinking Water. December, 2003. Obtained by EWG through public records request.

[24] Email from Jay Beaumont to George Alexeeff. August 7, 2001.

[25] Email from Jay Beaumont to Joan Denton. October 5, 2001.

[26] Email from Jay Beaumont to Richard Sedman. September 10, 2001.

[27] Email from Jay Beaumont to George Alexeeff, Bob Howd, Ling-Hong Li, Tom McDonald, Martha Sandy, Richard Sedman and Lauren Zeise. September 14, 2001.

[28] Bustillo, M. 2003. PG&E Assailed in Hearing Over Chromium 6; The utility boycotts session in which Erin Brockovich says firm had role in downplaying health risks of pollutant. Los Angeles Times. March 1, 2003.

[29] Polley, MB. 2002. Journal accused of letting industry ties cause bias. Pesticide & Toxic Chemical News. December 16, 2002.

[30] Lane, Alexander. 2004. Polluters gain as Jersey lifts limit for toxin. March 7, 2004. Newark Star-Ledger.

[31] Kerger Deposition. Volume 1, page 165, line 7.

[32] Deposition of Brent Kerger. Tuesday, February 18, 2003. Volume 2, page 327, line 12.

[33] Deposition of Tony Ye. Thursday, December 12, 2002. Volume 1, page 44, line 21; page 243, line 10.

[34] Kerger Deposition. Volume 2, page 514, line 8.

[35] Deposition of Tony Ye. Friday, December 13, 2002. Volume 2, page 516, line 21.

[36] Kerger Deposition. Volume 1, page 287, line 14.

[37] McLaren/Hart Environmental Engineering Corporation. 1995. Authorization letter/Task Order. September 11, 1995. Contract between PG&E and Jian Dong Zhang. Faxed to Tony Ye at ChemRisk. Bates stamps: TY-0459 and TY-0460.

[38] Letter from to Guang Zhu to Chris Daniels, McLaren Hart International. November 21, 1995. Bates stamp TY-100.

[39] Kerger Deposition. Volume 1, page 42, line 23.

[40] Kerger Deposition. Volume 1, page 47, line 6.

[41] Ye Deposition. Volume 2, page 369, line 4.

[42] Kerger Deposition. Volume 1, page 216, line 18.

[43] Kerger Deposition. Volume 1, page 43, line 19.

[44] Memo from Bill Butler to Brent Kerger. August 7, 1995. Bates stamps: WB-0117 to WB-0122. See page 2 of memo.

[45] Kerger Deposition. Volume 1, page 160, line 3.

[46] Ye Deposition. Volume 2, page 516, line 21.

[47] Kerger Deposition. Volume 2, page 514, line 8.

[48] Draft paper with Bates stamps: TY-0102 to TY-0112.

[49] Draft paper with Bates stamps: TY-0089 to TY-0097.

[50] Draft paper with Bates stamps: TY-0469 to TY-0476.

[51] Draft paper with Bates stamps: WB-0215 to WB-0220 and WB-0204 to WB206.

[52] Draft paper with Bates stamps: WB-0207 to WB-0209.

[53] Draft paper with Bates stamps: WB-0200 to WB-0203.

[54] Draft paper with Bates stamps: WB-0181 to WB-0184.

[55] Draft paper with Bates stamps: WB-0175 to WB-0179.

[56] Draft paper with Bates stamps: WB-0164 to WB-0167.

[57] Draft paper with Bates stamps: WB-0062 to WB-0070.

[58] Draft paper with Bates stamps: TY-0113 to TY-0119.

[59] Ye Deposition. Volume 2, page 330, line 23; page 361, line 2.

[60] Ye Deposition. Volume 1, page 157, line 20.

[61] Letter from Brent Kerger to Steven Hoch, Esq. May 20, 1996. Also faxed to Mike Whelan, PG&E May 20, 1996. Bates stamps: BRP 0331 to BRP 0335.

[62] Ye Deposition. Volume 2, page 332, line 22.

[63] Ye Deposition. Volume 1, page 64, line 24; page 66, line 16; page 68, line 24.

[64] Kerger Deposition. Volume 2, page 402, line 13.

[65] Kerger Deposition. Volume 1, page 264, line 4.

[66] Fax from Tony Ye to Gwen Corbett. January 24, 1996. Bates stamps TY-0529 to TY-0530.

[67] Ye Deposition. Volume 1, page 67, line 17.

[68] Memos from Tony Ye to Brent Kerger and Bill Butler. April 19 and May 20, 1996. Bates stamps TY-0540 and TY-0541.

[69] Memo from Gwen Corbett to Greg Read et al. June 5, 1996. Re: Acceptance of China Paper. Copied to Brent Kerger. Bates stamp: BRP 0329.

[70] Memo from Tony Ye to Brent Kerger. September 6, 1995. Bates stamps: WB-0173 to WB-0179. See page 1 of memo.

[71] Internal OEHHA memo dated March 28, 2003. Scientific issues regarding Zhang and Li, 1997. Obtained through public records request.

[72] Kerger Deposition. Volume 2, page 379, line 24.

[73] Kerger Deposition. Volume 2, page 394, line 8.

[74] Letter from Dennis Paustenbach to George Alexeeff. July 17, 2000.